Rabu, 27 Juni 2012

Session 5: Applications of Phonetics and Phonology

Session 5: Applications of Phonetics and Phonology

Before moving on to larger units of speech, it makes sense to have a closer look at the second major building block in our phoneme inventory besides consonants: vowels.
Vowels are produced by letting air flow through the articulatory system without any significant obstruction. The vocal cords always vibrate when a vowel is produced and the continuous stream of air makes it possible to lengthen or shorten vowel sounds, a distinction that can differentiate meaning in some languages.
The central qualities that allow us to describe vowels are height, backness and roundedness. They allow us to describe where a vowel sound originates (height and backness) and the shape of the lips during articulation (roundedness).

The above graphic should give you a good idea of height and backness and in what way they affect the quality of vowels.
The vowel chart (originally developed by phonetician Daniel Jones) combines all three features (height, backness, roundedness) into a single model to describe the realization of the so-called cardinal vowels in the oral cavity.

Because the decisive articulator determining the quality of vowel sounds is the tongue, it is possible for vowel quality to change over the duration of articulation if the position of the tongue changes. If the articulatory configuration shifts from one vowel into another the resulting composite sound is a so-called diphthong (or gliding vowel).
Examples for pure vowels:
sit /ɪ/ => high front vowel (unrounded)
foot /ʊ/ => high back vowel (rounded)
man /æ/ => middle central vowel
Examples for diphthongs:
time /aɪ/
face /eɪ/
choice /ɔɪ/
Differences between dialects and sociolects of English are often marked by contrasts in vowel quality.
Suprasegmental phonology / prosodics
Suprasegmental phonology studies intonation and other aspects of speech that extend over more than one segment:
  • stress is associated with syllables
  • rhythm, tempo and intonation are associated with phrases and sentences
Suprasegmental features like stress, rhythm, tempo, and intonation are sometimes referred to collectively as prosody.
Intonation refers to the contrastive use of pitch or melody in speech (ger. Tonhöhenverlauf, Sprechmelodie). Different levels of pitch (tones) are used in particular sequences (contours) to express a wide range of meanings. For example, we often make use of the difference between a falling and a rising pitch pattern in statements and questions.
- They’re waiting. (information)
- They’re waiting? (question)
- They’re waiting??! (surprise)
The part of a sentence over which a particular intonation pattern extends is called an intonation phrase. The intonation phrase is a unit of information rather than a syntactically defined unit, but it often overlaps with syntactic units like phrases, clauses, or sentences.
Most languages exhibit a general downward trend of pitch (declination) over the course of an intonation phrase. The completion of a full grammatical unit such as a declarative sentence is often signaled by a distinctive fall in pitch. Incomplete utterances, such as mid-sentence clause breaks where the speaker intends to show there is more coming, often exhibit a slight rise in pitch.
Connected Speech
Speech is a continuous stream of sounds without a definite borderline between each word. When we communicate with each others, we adapt our pronunciation to our audience and tend to speak at a pace which is convenient for us, rather than speaking clearly. This causes changes to the ‘shape’ of words. As a result, certain words are lost, and some phonemes are linked together while speaking. These changes are described as features of connected speech.
Among the phonological processes that affect connected speech are:
  • assimilation (changing sounds)
  • elision (losing sounds)
  • intrusion and linking (adding or joining sounds between words)
These features preserve rhythm and make the language sound natural.
Features of Connected Speech
Weak Forms: Some English words can occur in a full and a weak form, because English exhibits qualities of a stress-timed language. That means that, while we try to keep an equal interval between stressed syllables and give the phrase rhythm, we tend to leave out non-essential words. Consequently, conjunctions, pronouns and articles (i.e. function words) are often reduced or even lost.
Examples of words which have weak forms are:
- and: fish and chips. (fish´n chips)
- can: She can dance better than I can. (1st “can”= weak, 2nd “can” = full)
- of: A cup of tea.
- have: Have you eaten? (weak)/ Yes, I have. (full)
- should: Well, you should have told me. (“should” and “have” are weak)
Assimilation: This process alters sounds so that they becomes similar (partial assimilation) or identical (total assimilation) to a neighboring or nearby sound.
There are different types of assimilation: regressive/ anticipatory, progressive and reciprocal.
  • regressive/ anticipatory: articulation of the following sound will be anticipated. In most cases assimilation is regressive
  • progressive: articulation of a sound continues in the next sound, which means it will be maintained. Progressive assimilation is rare.
  • reciprocal: two sounds that produces a third one. (Example: don’t you)
Elision: Sounds disappear completely in this process. Usually the vowels from unstressed syllables are elided first.
Common sound deletions
- int(e)rest, sim(i)lar, lib(a)ry, diff(e)rent, t(o)night.
/ t / and / d / = consonants often elided
- chris(t)mas, san(d)wich
/ h /= this sound is often left out
- you shouldn´t (h)ave
Phrasal verbs can show how we link closing consonants and beginning vowels across word boundaries, e.g. Get out ( getout ), Come out ( cumout )
Intrusion and Linking: We often put an extra sound (/j/, /w/, /r/) between two vowel sounds, because it marks the transition sound between the two vowels. This is regarded as intrusion.
/ j /
- I / j / agree, They / j /are here!
/ w /
- I want to/ w/eat, Do/ w/it!
/ r /
- The media / r /are to blame, Law(r)and order.
A lot of times we drag final consonants to initial vowels or vice versa, therefore consonants and vowels can be linked also.
- Get on. (geton ), Not at all. (notatall ), Come on. (comon)
How does connected speech affect our communication?
Native speakers normally do not have a problem with unclear utterances caused by connected speech, as they can assume what the missing part could be within that context. Non-native speakers, on the other hand, sometimes have difficulty predicting which lexical item may or may not appear in a particular context. This already is a significant problem for learners. However, the non-native speaker not only has to recognise the use of reduced forms but also use them himself, unless he wants to risk sounding fairly unnatural. Furthermore, the listener will have trouble to identify the points of focus if the speaker uses too many stressed forms. In conclusion, aspects of connected speech are of significant importance for people who learn a new language.
Key Terms
  • vowels
    • height
    • backness
    • roundedness
  • monothongs, diphthongs
  • suprasegmental phonology /prosodics
  • pitch
  • intonation
  • connected speech
    • weak forms
    • assimilation
    • elision
    • intrusion / linking
Written by Cornelius in: Phonetics/Phonology,Summaries |

Presentation for Session 5

Below is the link to the presentation for last week’s session.
Session 5 – Applications of Phonetics and Phonology
The following issues will be briefly discussed next session, before we move into new territory (morphology):
  • prosodics
  • connected speech
You can also get the PDF version of the presentation here. My apologies for posting so late.
Written by Cornelius in: Phonetics/Phonology,Presentations |

Session 4: Sound and Meaning

Distribution of allophones
Before looking at sequences of speech sounds and how they are arranged in words and utterances, it pays off to have another look at how the allophones of a phoneme are distributed, specifically what variants can occur in what kinds of surroundings (have a look at the previous summary if you need a refresher on those two terms).
Analyzing slightly larger units of speech allows us explain some of the variation in how an individual phoneme is realized. If one allophone of a phoneme can always be found in a certain place and never in another, this is described as complementary distribution:
Complementary distribution is the mutually exclusive relationship between two phonetically similar segments. It exists when one segment occurs in an environment where the other segment never occurs.
from the SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms
An example to illustrate this is the phoneme /p/ with its realization as [pʰ] – the little h indicated that the sound is aspirated – and [p], which is unaspirated. Both sounds are allophones of the phoneme /p/ and they occur in complementary distribution, meaning one always occurs where the other doesn’t and vice versa. The aspirated version occurs when /p/ is the syllable onset and followed by a stressed vowel (as in the word pin), while the unaspirated version occurs in all other situations (e.g. in spin or top). It is important to note that while the two sounds are actually phonetically slightly different, exchanging one for the other (e.g. aspirating the /p/ in top) would not have any effect on the meaning of the word. If that seems strange to you, consider again that other languages are different in that respect and that in them these two variants of /p/ may not be allophones but distinct phonemes. Finally, another source of phonetic difference in how a phoneme is realized is free variation. Free variants are the result of individual or dialectal differences, such as vowel quality in different varieties of British and American English.
If phones are the smallest units of measurement in speech production, syllables are what follows them. Essentially a syllable is a vowel with optional consonants clustered around it. The vowel forms the so-called nucleus of the syllable, while any consonants coming after the vowel are referred to as the coda. Depending on whether the nucleus is followed by a coda or not, we describe the syllable as either closed or open.
The example below shows how syllable structure can be accurately described:
word: map (phonetically [mæp])
syllable structure: CVC
The word map has one syllable. It consists of the consonant [m], followed by the vowel [æ] and ends with the consonant [p] – therefore it has the syllable structure CVC. This is an example for a closed syllable (the vowel nucleus is followed by a consonant coda).
By contrast, the following example is an open syllable and does not have a coda:
you (phonetically [yu])
Remember that the letter y may represent a consonant (as in this example) or a vowel, as in happy. Don’t be fooled by the strange spelling conventions of English!
Consonant Clusters
Several consonants can stack at the beginning or end of a syllable, forming a so-called consonant cluster. The following example demonstrates this:
In English, a maximum of three consonants can stack at the beginning of a syllable, while a maximum of four consonants can succeed the nucleus, leading to this phonotactic description of syllable structure:
Here are a few more examples for better illustration:
monosyllabic (one syllable), closed
disyllabic (two syllables), open
monosyllabic (one syllable), closed
polysyllabic (four syllables), syllables are closed-open-open-closed
Stress is a means of emphasizing syllables (or, in some cases, words) in spoken language. In contrast to French (as one example) where words are generally stressed on the last syllable, English does not have a fixed word stress, as these examples show:
Stress also serves an important grammatical function in English, as it is capable of indicating word class. For example, the word survey can be either a verb or a noun:
(1) We want to surVEY all viewers of Channel 5 in order to learn more about their tastes.
(2) This SURvey indicates that the students are extremely bored.
In the first sentence survey is a verb and stressed on the second syllable, whereas in the second sentence it is a noun and stressed on the first syllable. Generally function words such as and, to and of (which are often monosyllabic) are unstressed in English.
Have a look at the following sentence and think about how shifting word stress affects the meaning.
(3) JOHN doesn’t like pie.
= John doesn’t like pie, Mary does
(4) John DOESN’T like pie.
= Someone assumed that he likes pie, but he actually doesn’t
(5) John doesn’t LIKE pie.
= He doesn’t just like it, he loves it!
(6) John doesn’t like PIE.
= He doesn’t like pie, but he’s crazy about donuts.
Key Terms
  • complementary distribution – free variation
  • aspiration
  • syllables
    • nucleus – coda
    • closed- open
  • consonant clusters
  • syllable stress, word stress
Written by Cornelius in: Phonetics/Phonology,Summaries |

YouTube Linguistics – Xhosa, New York English

Clicks in Xhosa

The clip above features a speaker of Xhosa, an agglutinative tonal language of the Bantu family, spoken in South Africa. The distinctive clicks of Xhosa are just one example for a speech sound with phoneme status that does not exist in English. Note that tonal languages (in which intonation distinguishes meaning) make up a significant percentage of the world’s languages.
New York English 1

New York English 2

New York English 3

These three clips give an interesting introduction into the phonology of New York English – and into the culture as well. Pay attention not just to the examples that Hipstomp gives, but also to how his speech is affected when he is talking quickly. We will discuss some aspects of connected speech in the next session.
Written by Cornelius in: Phonetics/Phonology |

Presentation for Session 4

Below is the link to the presentation for today’s session.
Session 4 – Sound and Meaning
The following issues will be repeated next session in particular:
  • free variation and complementary distribution of allophones
  • syllable structure
  • stress
You can also get the PDF version of the presentation here.
Written by Cornelius in: Phonetics/Phonology,Presentations |

Session 3: The Sounds of English

The two primary fields of linguistics concerned with speech sounds – those sounds that are used by humans to communicate – are phonetics and phonology. Both areas are mutually dependent. Phonetics describes the concrete, physical dimension of sounds, such as whether they are voiced or voiceless and their place and manner of articulation. The aspect of sound production is particularly what articulatory phonetics is concerned with, while acoustic and auditory phonetics deal with the characteristics of sound waves and how they are perceived by the human ear.
While phonetics deals with the form of sounds (how they are produced, heard and how they can be described), phonology is concerned with the function of sounds, that is, with their meaning in a given language. By systematically studying phonological differences between languages, it is for example possible to predict what sounds the learner of a second language will have difficulties with or why certain languages are judged as more difficult to learn in terms of pronunciation than others.
The basic unit of phonetics is called a phone, which is basically any human speech sound. Remember, phonetics is only concerned with “sounds as such”, so any sound that comes out of a person’s mouth can be called a phone. In contrast to this, the basic unit in phonology is the phoneme, which is any sound in a language that differentiates meaning. In linguistic contexts, phones are often expressed by placing brackets around a transcription (e.g. [dæns] for American dance).
The relationship of sound and meaning can be explained by looking into whether a difference in sound structure causes a shift in meaning or not. Try this by saying the following words out loud:
look – book – cook – took
You will notice right away that their sound patterns are similar except for the initial sound (l, b, c, t). The fact that replacing one sound with another (for example, l with b) yields a different meaningful word in English demonstrates that the speech sounds l and b are phonemes in the English language. Linguists normally write phonemes with slashes around the transcriptions, e.g. /l/ and /b/. An case like look – book that demonstrates that /l/ and /b/ are phonemes is called a minimal pair.
Now compare this with another example:
tea – he
At first this might be confusing. While the spelling of look, book etc happens to be similar, except at the beginning of the word where the distinct phoneme occurs, the spelling of tea and he is not similar. But they still form a minimal pair for the phonemes /t/ and /h/, because the rest of the sound pattern is identical.
The key here is to recognize that we are dealing with sounds, not spelling. Two sounds may be distinct phonemes while being represented by the same letters, or be completely identical in terms of sound structure but look different in writing.
see – sea
Identical sound, different spelling – not a minimal pair, because we’re looking at a difference that exists only in writing.
the – me
The final sound looks similar in writing, but is there is an obvious sound difference between short and long e. However, these two words are not suitable candidates for a minimal pair test, as the rest of the sound pattern is not identical.
What, then, about sounds which are different but do not differentiate meaning? Take this example:
lip – pill
While the difference is slight, you might notice that /l/ does not sound exactly the same in lip and pill (try to keep track of where you place the tip of your tongue). Such a difference depends on many factors – in this case whether the sound is at the beginning or end of the word. Other examples for such factors include dialectal differences (think about how British vs. American speakers say dance or France) and there is even a certain degree of difference among individuals. The decisive contrast between this and the examples above is that such variants don’t differentiate meaning. The ls in lip and pill are both allophones of the phoneme /l/.
What is it good for?
Why is it important whether we are dealing with allophones of the same phoneme or with entirely different phonemes? Have a look at this table describing the phoneme inventory of Standard Mandarin, the official language of China. One difference that you are likely to notice is that Standard Mandarin lacks the voiced bilabial, alveolar and velar plosives /b/, /d/ and /g/. However, it has aspirated (ger. behaucht) versions of these consonants, which are distinct phonemes: pʰ, tʰ, kʰ. In other words, a difference that does not distinguish meaning in English (aspiration) is a salient difference in Mandarin Chinese, while another one (voicing of plosives) distinguishes meaning in English but not in Chinese.
Side by side
The following table gives an summarizing overview of the differences between phonetics and phonology.
sounds as such
sounds as parts of a sound system
language use (parole)
language system (langue)
phone [ ]
phoneme / /
The human vocal tract
What is for linguistic purposes identified as the vocal tract fills several functions, among them breathing and ingesting food. The production of speech sounds is essentially realized by directing the flow of air through the articulatory system in specific ways – for example by letting air escape gradually in a sort of hiss, by letting air pressure build and then suddenly releasing it, by letting the vocal cords vibrate etc.

Describing speech sounds
Speech sounds are usually described via their articulatory qualities, i.e. their
  • place of articulation (where in the vocal tract they are generated)
  • manner of articulation (how they are generated)
and whether they are
  • voiced or voiceless (whether they make the vocal cords vibrate or not )
Vowels vs. consonants
One basic phonetic differentiation that can be made when classifying speech sounds is that they fall into two relatively distinct categories:
  • vowels, which are produced by letting air flow through the articulatory system without any constraints and
  • consonants, which feature some sort of obstruction of the air flow in the vocal tract
Vowels are generally voiced, while English consonants can be either voiced or voiceless.
Place of articulation
The following list describes the main places of articulation for English consonants. Note that the use of certain places and manners of articulation is common in some languages but not in others. For example, Arabic has two pharyngeal consonants that English lacks (/ħ/ and /ʕ/). An example that you are familiar with are the Umlaut vowels that occur in German but not in English and the dental fricative (the “th”) that is common in English but not in German.
A sound that is produced by pressing the lips together is called bilabial.
Sounds: /p/, /b/, /m/ (and, to some extent, the labial-velar approximant /w/)
A sound that involves using the lips and teeth together is described as labio-dental.
Sounds: /f/, /v/
A sound that is created by placing the tip of the tongue behind the upper teeth is dental.
Sounds: /θ/, /ð/
Alveolar ridge
A sound that is produced by tapping the tongue against the area a bit behind the teeth (called the alveolar ridge) is referred to as alveolar.
/t/, /d/, /n/, /s/, /z/, /ɹ/, /l/
Alveolar ridge and hard palate
A sound that originates between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate is called palato-alveolar or post-alveolar.
/ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/
Hard palate
A sound that comes from the middle section of the roof of the mouth (the hard palate) is called palatal.
Sound: /j/

Soft palate (velum)
A sound the is produced in the upper back area of the mouth (the soft palate or velum) is described as velar.
Sounds: /k/, /g/, /
A sound that originates in the throat (or, more specifically, the glottis) is referred to as glottal.
Sound: /h/

Manner of articulation
The term manner of articulation is generally used to explain how a sound is produced. Place, manner and voicing are usually named together, allowing us to describe /z/ as a voiced alveolar fricative.
These sounds (also referred to as stops) occur when there is an initial blockage of both the oral and nasal cavities of the vocal tract (and therefore no air flow), which is then suddenly released.
Sounds: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/
When articulating a nasal the air flow completely bypasses the oral cavity, instead flowing through the nose. The precise position of the tongue during articulation determines the resulting sound.
Sounds: /m/, /n/
Fricatives are produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulatory organs closely together (for example, upper lip and lower teeth in /f/).
Sounds: /f/, /v/, /θ/, /ð/, /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /h/

Africatives combine plosive with fricative qualities, first blocking the air stream and then slowly releasing it (in contrast to normal plosives, which release pressure suddenly).
Sounds: /tʃ/, /dʒ/
The articulation of these speech sounds involves only very slight obstruction of the air flow, which is why some approximants are considered to be relatively close to vowels (so-called half-vowels). The exact realization of the approximant /r/ (as either /ɹ/ or /ɻ/) is one of the characteristic differences between British and American English dialects*.
Sounds: /l/ (lateral-alveolar approximant), /j/ (palatal approximant), /w/ (labial-velar approximant), /ɹ/ (lateral approximant in British RP), /ɻ/ (retroflex approximant in American English)
* Note that there is really no single British or American English in the precise linguistic sense. British could theoretically include Scots (which is widely regarded as a seperate language), Received Pronunciation and Cockney, while American would geographically conflate Canadian English with Southern US-American and countless other regional and social varieties. Always keep in mind that tags like British English and American English are idealized blanket labels which are generally not specific enough for linguistic purposes.
Key Terms
  • phonetics – phonology
  • phone – phoneme – allophone
  • vocal tract
  • vowel – consonant
  • voicing – place of articulation – manner of articulation

Pengantar Linguistik Bahasa Inggris

Sesi 5: Aplikasi Fonetik dan Fonologi

Sebelum pindah ke unit yang lebih besar dari pidato, masuk akal untuk melihat lebih dekat pada blok bangunan utama kedua dalam persediaan fonem konsonan selain kami: vokal.
Huruf vokal yang dihasilkan dengan membiarkan aliran udara melalui sistem artikulatoris tanpa halangan signifikan. Pita suara selalu bergetar bila vokal diproduksi dan aliran berkelanjutan dari udara memungkinkan untuk memperpanjang atau memperpendek suara vokal, perbedaan yang dapat membedakan makna dalam beberapa bahasa.
Kualitas pusat yang memungkinkan kita untuk menggambarkan vokal yang tinggi, backness dan kebulatan. Mereka memungkinkan kita untuk menggambarkan dimana suara vokal berasal (tinggi dan backness) dan bentuk bibir selama artikulasi (kebulatan).

Grafik di atas akan memberikan Anda ide yang baik dari tinggi dan backness dan dengan cara bagaimana mereka mempengaruhi kualitas vokal.
Grafik vokal (awalnya dikembangkan oleh ahli fonetik Daniel Jones ) menggabungkan semua tiga fitur (tinggi, backness, kebulatan) ke dalam sebuah model untuk menggambarkan realisasi yang disebut vokal kardinal di rongga mulut.

Karena artikulator yang menentukan menentukan kualitas suara vokal adalah lidah, adalah mungkin untuk kualitas vokal berubah selama masa artikulasi jika posisi perubahan lidah. Jika konfigurasi artikulatoris bergeser dari satu ke lain vokal suara komposit yang dihasilkan adalah diftong yang disebut (atau meluncur vokal).
Contoh untuk vokal murni:
duduk / ɪ / => vokal depan tinggi (unrounded)
kaki / ʊ / => vokal kembali tinggi (dibulatkan)
pria / æ / => tengah vokal pusat
Contoh untuk diftong:
waktu / aɪ /
wajah / eɪ /
pilihan / ɔɪ /
Perbedaan antara dialek dan bahasa Inggris sociolects sering ditandai oleh kontras dalam kualitas vokal.
Suprasegmental fonologi / prosodics
Fonologi suprasegmental studi intonasi dan aspek lain dari pidato yang memperpanjang selama lebih dari satu segmen:
  • stres dikaitkan dengan suku kata
  • irama, tempo dan intonasi yang berhubungan dengan frasa dan kalimat
Fitur suprasegmental seperti stres, ritme, tempo, intonasi dan kadang-kadang disebut secara kolektif sebagai prosodi.
Intonasi mengacu pada penggunaan kontrastif lapangan atau melodi dalam pidato (ger. Tonhöhenverlauf, Sprechmelodie). Berbagai tingkat lapangan (nada) digunakan dalam urutan tertentu (kontur) untuk mengekspresikan berbagai makna. Sebagai contoh, kita sering memanfaatkan perbedaan antara jatuh dan pola lapangan meningkat dalam pernyataan dan pertanyaan.
- Mereka sedang menunggu. (Informasi)
- Mereka sedang menunggu? (Pertanyaan)
- Mereka sedang menunggu?! (Kejutan)
Bagian dari kalimat dimana pola intonasi tertentu meluas disebut frase intonasi. Ungkapan intonasi adalah unit informasi daripada sebuah unit sintaksis didefinisikan, tetapi sering kali tumpang tindih dengan unit sintaksis seperti frase, klausa, atau kalimat.
Kebanyakan bahasa menunjukkan tren menurun umum lapangan (deklinasi) selama frase intonasi. Penyelesaian unit gramatikal lengkap seperti kalimat deklaratif sering ditandai dengan penurunan khas di lapangan. Ucapan-ucapan yang tidak lengkap, seperti tengah kalimat istirahat klausul di mana pembicara bermaksud untuk menunjukkan ada lebih mendatang, sering menunjukkan sedikit peningkatan di lapangan.
Terhubung Pidato
Pidato adalah aliran berkelanjutan dari suara tanpa batas yang pasti antara setiap kata. Ketika kita berkomunikasi satu sama lain, kita beradaptasi pengucapan kami untuk pendengar kita dan cenderung berbicara pada kecepatan yang nyaman bagi kita, daripada berbicara dengan jelas. Hal ini menyebabkan perubahan pada 'bentuk' dari kata-kata. Akibatnya, kata-kata tertentu yang hilang, dan beberapa fonem dihubungkan bersama sambil berbicara. Perubahan ini digambarkan sebagai fitur pidato terhubung.
Di antara proses fonologi yang mempengaruhi pidato terhubung adalah:
  • asimilasi (mengubah suara)
  • penghilangan bunyi dlm percakapan (kehilangan suara)
  • intrusi dan menghubungkan (menambahkan atau bergabung dengan suara antara kata-kata)
Fitur-fitur ini menjaga ritme dan membuat suara bahasa alami.
Fitur Speech Terhubung
Bentuk Lemah: Beberapa kata dalam bahasa Inggris dapat terjadi dalam bentuk penuh dan lemah, karena bahasa Inggris pameran kualitas bahasa stres tepat waktu. Itu berarti bahwa, sementara kami mencoba untuk menjaga interval sama antara suku kata stres dan memberikan ritme kalimat, kita cenderung untuk meninggalkan yang tidak penting kata-kata. Akibatnya, konjungsi, kata ganti dan artikel (yaitu kata-kata fungsi) sering berkurang atau bahkan hilang.
Contoh kata yang memiliki bentuk yang lemah adalah:
- Dan: ikan dan keripik. (Chip fish'n)
- Dapat: Dia bisa menari lebih baik daripada aku bisa. (1 "dapat" = lemah, 2 "dapat" = penuh)
- Dari: Secangkir teh.
- Memiliki: Apakah engkau makan? (Lemah) / Ya, saya punya. (Penuh)
- Harus: Nah, Anda harus mengatakan kepada saya. ("Should" dan "telah" lemah)
Asimilasi: Proses ini mengubah suara sehingga mereka menjadi serupa (asimilasi parsial) atau identik (asimilasi total) untuk suara tetangga atau dekat.
Ada berbagai jenis asimilasi: regresif / antisipatif, progresif dan timbal balik.
  • regresif / antisipatif: artikulasi suara berikut akan diantisipasi. Dalam kebanyakan kasus asimilasi regresif adalah
  • progresif: artikulasi suara terus dalam suara berikutnya, yang berarti akan dipertahankan. Asimilasi progresif jarang terjadi.
  • timbal balik: suara dua yang menghasilkan sepertiga. (Contoh: jangan Anda)
Penghilangan bunyi dlm percakapan: Suara hilang sepenuhnya dalam proses ini. Biasanya vokal dari suku kata tanpa tekanan yang elided pertama.
Umum suara penghapusan
- Int (e) istirahat, sim (i) lar, lib (a) ry, beda (e) sewa, t (o) malam.
/ T / dan / d / = konsonan sering elided
- Chris (t) mas, san (d) Wich
/ H / = suara ini sering ditinggalkan
- Anda tidak harus (h) ave
Kata kerja phrasal dapat menunjukkan bagaimana kita link menutup konsonan dan vokal mulai melintasi batas-batas kata, misalnya Keluar (getout), Keluar (cumout)
Intrusion dan Link: Kita sering menempatkan suara tambahan (/ j /, / w /, / r /) antara dua bunyi vokal, karena menandai suara transisi antara dua vokal. Hal ini dianggap sebagai intrusi.
/ J /
- I / j / setuju, Mereka / j / di sini!
/ B /
- Saya ingin / w / makan, Wisata / b / itu!
/ R /
- Media / r / yang harus disalahkan, Hukum (r) dan ketertiban.
Banyak kali kita tarik konsonan akhir untuk vokal awal atau sebaliknya, oleh karena itu konsonan dan vokal bisa dihubungkan juga.
- Dapatkan di. (Geton), Tidak sama sekali. (Notatall), Ayo. (Comon)
Bagaimana terhubung pidato mempengaruhi komunikasi kita?
Penutur asli biasanya tidak memiliki masalah dengan ucapan-ucapan yang tidak jelas disebabkan oleh ucapan yang terhubung, karena mereka dapat menganggap apa bagian yang hilang bisa dalam konteks tersebut. Non-penutur asli, di sisi lain, kadang-kadang mengalami kesulitan memprediksi yang item leksikal mungkin atau mungkin tidak muncul dalam konteks tertentu. Ini sudah merupakan masalah yang signifikan bagi peserta didik. Namun, pembicara non-pribumi tidak hanya harus mengenali penggunaan bentuk berkurang tetapi juga menggunakan mereka sendiri, kecuali ia ingin mengambil risiko terdengar cukup wajar. Selanjutnya, pendengar akan mengalami kesulitan untuk mengidentifikasi titik-titik fokus jika pembicara menggunakan bentuk menekankan terlalu banyak. Kesimpulannya, aspek pidato terhubung sangat penting yang signifikan bagi orang yang belajar bahasa baru.
Key Terms
  • vokal
    • tinggi
    • backness
    • kebulatan
  • monothongs, diftong
  • suprasegmental fonologi / prosodics
  • nada
  • intonasi
  • terhubung pidato
    • bentuk lemah
    • asimilasi
    • penghilangan bunyi dlm percakapan
    • intrusi / menghubungkan
Ditulis oleh Kornelius di: Fonetik / Fonologi , Ringkasan |

Presentasi Sesi 5

Di bawah ini adalah link ke presentasi untuk sesi pekan lalu.
Sesi 5 - Aplikasi Fonetik dan Fonologi
Isu-isu berikut akan dibahas secara singkat sesi berikutnya, sebelum kita bergerak ke wilayah baru (morfologi):
  • prosodics
  • terhubung pidato
Anda juga bisa mendapatkan versi PDF dari presentasi di sini . Saya minta maaf untuk posting terlambat.
Ditulis oleh Kornelius di: Fonetik / Fonologi , Presentasi |

Sesi 4: Suara dan Arti

Distribusi alofon
Sebelum melihat urutan bunyi-bunyi ujaran dan bagaimana mereka diatur dalam kata-kata dan ucapan-ucapan, membayar ke kita lihat lagi pada bagaimana alofon dari sebuah fonem didistribusikan, khususnya varian apa yang dapat terjadi pada apa jenis lingkungan (kita lihat di sebelumnya ringkasan jika Anda membutuhkan penyegaran pada dua hal).
Menganalisis unit sedikit lebih besar dari pidato memungkinkan kita menjelaskan beberapa variasi dalam bagaimana sebuah fonem individu direalisasikan. Jika salah satu alofon dari fonem selalu dapat ditemukan di tempat tertentu dan tidak pernah di tempat lain, ini digambarkan sebagai distribusi melengkapi:
Distribusi komplementer adalah hubungan yang saling eksklusif antara dua segmen fonetis serupa. Ini terjadi ketika satu segmen terjadi dalam lingkungan di mana segmen lain tidak pernah terjadi.
dari Daftar kata SIL Istilah Linguistik
Sebuah contoh untuk menggambarkan ini adalah fonem / p / dengan realisasi sebagai [p ʰ] - h kecil menunjukkan bahwa suara yang disedot - dan [p] yang tidak diaspirasikan. Kedua suara adalah alofon dari fonem / p / dan mereka terjadi dalam distribusi komplementer, yang berarti orang selalu terjadi di mana yang lainnya tidak dan sebaliknya. Versi disedot terjadi ketika / p / adalah awal suku kata dan diikuti oleh vokal stres (seperti dalam kata dalam p), sedangkan versi yang tidak diaspirasikan terjadi pada semua situasi lain (misalnya di s p dalam atau p). Penting untuk dicatat bahwa sementara dua suara sebenarnya fonetis yang sedikit berbeda, bertukar satu untuk yang lain (misalnya aspirating / p / di atas) tidak akan memiliki efek pada arti dari kata itu. Jika yang tampaknya aneh bagi Anda, pertimbangkan lagi bahwa bahasa lainnya berbeda dalam hal ini dan bahwa di dalamnya dua varian / p / mungkin tidak allophone tapi fonem yang berbeda. Akhirnya, satu sumber perbedaan fonetik dalam cara fonem direalisasikan adalah variasi bebas. Gratis varian adalah hasil dari perbedaan individu atau dialek, seperti kualitas vokal dalam varietas yang berbeda dari Inggris dan Amerika Inggris.
Suku kata
Jika ponsel adalah unit terkecil pengukuran dalam produksi ujaran, suku kata adalah apa yang mengikuti mereka. Pada dasarnya suku kata adalah vokal dengan konsonan opsional berkerumun di sekitarnya. Vokal membentuk inti yang disebut suku kata, sementara setiap konsonan datang setelah vokal yang disebut sebagai koda. Tergantung pada apakah inti diikuti oleh koda atau tidak, kita menggambarkan suku kata baik sebagai tertutup atau terbuka.
Contoh di bawah ini menunjukkan bagaimana struktur suku kata dapat secara akurat dijelaskan:
kata: peta (fonetis [mæp])
suku kata struktur: CVC
Peta kata memiliki satu suku kata. Ini terdiri dari konsonan [m], diikuti dengan vokal [æ] dan berakhir dengan konsonan [p] - oleh karena itu memiliki CVC struktur suku kata. Ini adalah contoh untuk suku tertutup (inti vokal diikuti oleh konsonan koda).
Sebaliknya, contoh berikut adalah suku kata terbuka dan tidak memiliki koda:
Anda (fonetis [yu])
Ingatlah bahwa surat y mungkin merupakan konsonan (seperti dalam contoh ini) atau vokal, seperti dalam bahagia. Jangan tertipu oleh konvensi ejaan aneh bahasa Inggris!
Konsonan Cluster
Beberapa konsonan dapat stack pada awal atau akhir suku kata, membentuk gugus konsonan disebut. Contoh berikut menunjukkan ini:
Dalam bahasa Inggris, maksimal tiga konsonan dapat stack pada awal suku kata, sedangkan maksimum empat konsonan dapat berhasil inti, yang mengarah ke deskripsi phonotactic struktur suku kata:
Berikut adalah beberapa contoh untuk ilustrasi yang lebih baik:
bersuku kata satu (satu suku kata), ditutup
bersuku dua (dua suku kata), buka
bersuku kata satu (satu suku kata), ditutup
mantan pla-na-tion
bersuku kata banyak (empat suku kata), suku kata yang tertutup-terbuka-terbuka-tertutup
Stres adalah sarana menekankan suku kata (atau, dalam beberapa kasus, kata) dalam bahasa lisan. Berbeda dengan Prancis (sebagai salah satu contoh) dimana kata-kata umumnya menekankan pada suku kata terakhir, Inggris tidak memiliki kata stres tetap, sebagai contoh-contoh ini menunjukkan:
'A simetris
ab 'duc tion
pemecatan 'yee
Stres juga memiliki fungsi penting tata bahasa dalam bahasa Inggris, ia mampu menunjukkan kelas kata. Misalnya, survei kata dapat berupa kata kerja atau kata benda:
(1) Kami ingin meneliti semua pemirsa Channel 5 untuk mempelajari lebih lanjut tentang selera mereka.
(2) Survei ini menunjukkan bahwa siswa sangat bosan.
Dalam survei kalimat pertama adalah kata kerja dan menekankan pada suku kata kedua, sedangkan di kalimat kedua itu adalah kata benda dan menekankan pada suku kata pertama. Umumnya fungsi kata-kata seperti dan, dan (yang sering bersuku kata) yang tanpa tekanan dalam bahasa Inggris.
Silahkan lihat pada kalimat berikut dan berpikir tentang bagaimana pergeseran stres kata mempengaruhi artinya.
(3) JOHN tidak suka pie.
= John tidak suka pie, Maria tidak
(4) Yohanes TIDAK suka pie.
= Seseorang diasumsikan bahwa dia suka pie, tapi dia sebenarnya tidak
(5) Yohanes tidak SUKA pie.
= Dia tidak hanya suka, dia menyukainya!
(6) Yohanes tidak ingin PIE.
= Ia tidak suka pie, tapi dia tergila-gila donat.
Key Terms
  • pelengkap distribusi - variasi bebas
  • aspirasi
  • suku kata
    • inti - koda
    • tertutup terbuka
  • konsonan cluster
  • suku kata stres, stres kata
Ditulis oleh Kornelius di: Fonetik / Fonologi , Ringkasan |

YouTube Linguistik - Xhosa, New York Inggris

Klik di Xhosa

Klip di atas dilengkapi dengan speaker dari Xhosa , sebuah aglutinatif bahasa tonal dari Bantu keluarga, diucapkan di Afrika Selatan. Klik yang khas Xhosa adalah salah satu contoh untuk suara pidato dengan status fonem yang tidak ada dalam bahasa Inggris. Perhatikan bahwa bahasa tonal (dalam intonasi membedakan artinya) membentuk persentase yang signifikan dari bahasa di dunia.
New York Bahasa Inggris 1
New York Bahasa Inggris 2
New York Inggris 3

Ketiga klip memberikan pengantar yang menarik ke dalam fonologi New York Bahasa Inggris - dan ke dalam budaya juga. Perhatikan bukan hanya pada contoh-contoh yang Hipstomp memberi, tetapi juga untuk bagaimana pidatonya dipengaruhi ketika ia sedang berbicara dengan cepat. Kita akan membahas beberapa aspek pidato terhubung dalam sesi berikutnya.
Ditulis oleh Kornelius di: Fonetik / Fonologi |

Presentasi Sesi 4

Di bawah ini adalah link ke presentasi untuk sesi hari ini.
Sesi 4 - Sound dan Makna
Isu-isu berikut akan diulang sesi berikutnya khususnya:
  • bebas variasi dan distribusi komplementer allophone
  • suku kata struktur
  • tekanan
Anda juga bisa mendapatkan versi PDF dari presentasi di sini .
Ditulis oleh Kornelius di: Fonetik / Fonologi , Presentasi |

Sesi 3: Suara bahasa Inggris

Dua bidang utama dari linguistik peduli dengan suara pidato - suara-suara yang digunakan oleh manusia untuk berkomunikasi - adalah fonetik dan fonologi. Kedua daerah saling tergantung. Fonetik menjelaskan dimensi, beton fisik suara, seperti apakah mereka bersuara atau tak bersuara dan tempat mereka dan cara artikulasi. Aspek produksi suara sangat apa artikulatoris fonetik berkaitan dengan, sedangkan akustik dan pendengaran kesepakatan fonetik dengan karakteristik gelombang suara dan bagaimana mereka dirasakan oleh telinga manusia.
Sedangkan fonetik penawaran dengan bentuk suara (bagaimana mereka diproduksi, mendengar dan bagaimana mereka dapat digambarkan), fonologi berkaitan dengan fungsi suara, yaitu, dengan artinya dalam bahasa tertentu. Dengan sistematis mempelajari perbedaan fonologis antara bahasa, itu untuk contoh mungkin untuk memprediksi apa yang terdengar dari pembelajar bahasa kedua akan memiliki kesulitan dengan atau mengapa bahasa tertentu dinilai sebagai lebih sulit untuk belajar dalam hal pengucapan dari yang lain.
Unit dasar fonetik disebut telepon, yang pada dasarnya setiap bunyi ujaran manusia. Ingat, fonetik adalah hanya peduli dengan "terdengar seperti", sehingga setiap suara yang keluar dari mulut seseorang bisa disebut telepon. Berbeda dengan ini, unit dasar dalam fonologi adalah fonem, yaitu setiap suara dalam bahasa yang membedakan makna. Dalam konteks bahasa, telepon sering dinyatakan dengan menempatkan tanda kurung di sekitar transkripsi (misalnya [dæns] untuk tari Amerika).
Hubungan antara suara dan makna dapat dijelaskan dengan melihat ke dalam apakah perbedaan dalam struktur suara menyebabkan pergeseran makna atau tidak. Coba ini dengan mengatakan kata-kata berikut dengan suara keras:
l ook - b ook - c ook - ook t
Anda akan melihat langsung bahwa pola musik mereka mirip kecuali untuk suara awal (l, b, c, t). Fakta bahwa mengganti satu suara dengan yang lain (misalnya, l dengan b) menghasilkan kata yang bermakna berbeda di Inggris menunjukkan bahwa pidato tersebut terdengar l dan b adalah fonem dalam bahasa Inggris. Ahli bahasa biasanya menulis fonem dengan garis miring di sekitar, misalnya transkripsi / l / dan / b /. Kasus seperti tampilan - buku yang menunjukkan bahwa / l / dan / b / adalah fonem disebut pasangan minimal.
Sekarang bandingkan hal ini dengan contoh lain:
t ea - h e
Pada awalnya ini mungkin membingungkan. Sementara ejaan tampilan, dll buku kebetulan mirip, kecuali pada awal kata di mana fonem yang berbeda terjadi, ejaan teh dan ia tidak serupa. Tapi mereka masih membentuk suatu pasangan minimal untuk fonem / t / dan / h /, karena sisa dari pola suara identik.
Kuncinya di sini adalah mengakui bahwa kita berhadapan dengan suara, bukan ejaan. Dua suara mungkin fonem yang berbeda ketika sedang diwakili oleh huruf yang sama, atau benar-benar identik dalam hal struktur suara tapi terlihat berbeda secara tertulis.
s ee - s ea
Identik suara, ejaan yang berbeda - bukan pasangan minimal, karena kita sedang melihat sebuah perbedaan yang hanya ada secara tertulis.
th e - m e
Bunyi akhir terlihat mirip secara tertulis, tetapi ada perbedaan suara yang jelas antara e pendek dan panjang. Namun, dua kata ini tidak kandidat yang cocok untuk tes pasangan minimal, sebagai sisa dari pola suara tidak identik.
Apa, kemudian, tentang suara yang berbeda tetapi tidak membedakan makna? Ambil contoh ini:
l ip - pi ll
Sedangkan perbedaannya adalah sedikit, Anda mungkin melihat bahwa / l / tidak terdengar persis sama di bibir dan pil (mencoba untuk melacak di mana Anda menempatkan ujung lidah Anda). Perbedaan tersebut tergantung pada banyak faktor - dalam hal ini apakah suara adalah pada awal atau akhir kata. Contoh lain untuk faktor tersebut termasuk perbedaan dialek (berpikir tentang bagaimana speaker Inggris vs Amerika mengatakan tarian atau Perancis) dan bahkan ada tingkat tertentu perbedaan antara individu. Kontras yang menentukan antara ini dan contoh di atas adalah bahwa varian tersebut tidak membedakan makna. L di bibir dan pil keduanya alofon dari fonem / l /.
Apa itu baik untuk?
Mengapa penting apakah kita berhadapan dengan alofon dari fonem yang sama atau dengan fonem yang sama sekali berbeda? Silahkan lihat pada tabel ini menggambarkan persediaan fonem dari Standar Mandarin , bahasa resmi Cina. Satu perbedaan bahwa Anda mungkin perlu diperhatikan adalah bahwa Standar Mandarin tidak memiliki bilabial bersuara, alveolar dan velar plosif / b /, / d / dan / g /. Namun, telah disedot (ger. behaucht) versi ini konsonan, fonem yang berbeda: p ʰ, t ʰ, k ʰ. Dengan kata lain, perbedaan yang tidak membedakan makna dalam bahasa Inggris (aspirasi) adalah perbedaan yang menonjol di Cina Mandarin, sedangkan satu lagi (menyuarakan dari plosif) membedakan makna dalam bahasa Inggris tapi tidak dalam bahasa Cina.
Tabel berikut memberikan gambaran meringkas perbedaan antara fonetik dan fonologi.
suara seperti
suara sebagai bagian dari sistem suara
bahasa digunakan (pembebasan bersyarat)
sistem bahasa (langue)
tergantung pada bahasa
telepon []
fonem / /
Saluran vokal manusia
Apakah untuk tujuan linguistik diidentifikasi sebagai saluran vokal mengisi beberapa fungsi, di antaranya bernapas dan menelan makanan. Produksi suara pembicaraan pada dasarnya diwujudkan dengan mengarahkan aliran udara melalui sistem artikulasi dengan cara tertentu - misalnya dengan membiarkan udara keluar secara bertahap dalam semacam mendesis, dengan membiarkan tekanan udara membangun dan kemudian tiba-tiba melepaskannya, dengan membiarkan vokal tali bergetar dll

Menggambarkan suara pidato
Suara pidato biasanya digambarkan melalui kualitas artikulatori mereka, yaitu mereka
  • tempat artikulasi (di mana di saluran vokal mereka yang dihasilkan)
  • cara artikulasi (bagaimana mereka dihasilkan)
dan apakah mereka
  • bersuara atau tak bersuara (apakah mereka membuat pita suara bergetar atau tidak)
Vokal vs konsonan
Salah satu diferensiasi fonetis dasar yang dapat dibuat ketika mengklasifikasikan bunyi-bunyi ujaran adalah bahwa mereka terbagi dalam dua kategori yang relatif berbeda:
  • vokal, yang dihasilkan dengan membiarkan aliran udara melalui sistem artikulatoris tanpa kendala dan
  • konsonan, yang menampilkan beberapa jenis obstruksi aliran udara di saluran vokal
Vokal umumnya menyuarakan, sedangkan konsonan bahasa Inggris dapat berupa bersuara atau tak bersuara.
Tempat artikulasi
Daftar berikut menggambarkan tempat utama untuk artikulasi konsonan bahasa Inggris. Perhatikan bahwa penggunaan tempat-tempat tertentu dan perilaku artikulasi adalah umum di beberapa bahasa tapi tidak pada orang lain. Sebagai contoh, bahasa Arab memiliki dua konsonan faring bahwa bahasa Inggris tidak memiliki (/ h / dan / ʕ /). Sebuah contoh bahwa Anda sudah familiar dengan adalah vokal umlaut yang terjadi di Jerman tetapi tidak dalam bahasa Inggris dan frikatif gigi (yang "th") yang umum dalam bahasa Inggris tapi tidak di Jerman.
Suara yang dihasilkan dengan menekan bibir bersama-sama disebut bilabial.
Suara: / p /, / b /, / m / (dan, sampai batas tertentu, labial-velar afroksiman / w /)
Sebuah suara yang melibatkan menggunakan bibir dan gigi bersama-sama digambarkan sebagai labio-gigi.
Suara: / f /, / v /
Sebuah suara yang dibuat dengan menempatkan ujung lidah di belakang gigi atas adalah gigi.
Suara: / θ /, / ð /
Alveolar ridge
Suara yang dihasilkan dengan menekan lidah terhadap daerah sedikit di belakang gigi (disebut ridge alveolar) disebut sebagai alveolar.
Suara: / t /, / d /, / n /, / s /, / z /, / ɹ /, / l /
Alveolar ridge dan langit-langit keras
Sebuah suara yang berasal antara ridge alveolar dan palatum durum disebut palato-alveolar atau pasca-alveolar.
Suara: / ʃ /, / ʒ /, / tʃ /, / dʒ /
Palatum keras
Suara yang datang dari bagian tengah langit-langit mulut (palatum durum) disebut palatal.
Sound: / j /
Langit-langit lunak (velum)
Sebuah suara yang dihasilkan di daerah punggung bagian atas mulut (langit-langit lunak atau velum) digambarkan sebagai velar.
Suara: / k /, / g /, / n /
Suara yang berasal dari tenggorokan (atau, lebih khusus, glotis ) disebut sebagai glotal.
Sound: / h /
Cara artikulasi
Cara jangka artikulasi umumnya digunakan untuk menjelaskan bagaimana suara yang dihasilkan. Tempat, cara dan menyuarakan biasanya bernama bersama-sama, memungkinkan kita untuk menggambarkan / z / sebagai frikatif alveolar bersuara.
Suara ini (juga disebut sebagai berhenti) terjadi bila ada penyumbatan awal dari kedua rongga mulut dan hidung pada saluran vokal (dan karena itu tidak ada aliran udara), yang kemudian tiba-tiba dilepaskan.
Suara: / p /, / b /, / t /, / d /, / k /, / g /
Ketika mengartikulasikan sebuah hidung aliran udara benar-benar bypasses rongga mulut, bukan mengalir melalui hidung. Posisi tepat dari lidah selama artikulasi menentukan suara yang dihasilkan.
Suara: / m /, / n /
Frikatif diproduksi dengan memaksa udara melalui saluran sempit dibuat dengan menempatkan dua organ artikulasi erat bersama-sama (misalnya, bibir atas dan gigi bawah di / f /).
Suara: / f /, / v /, / θ /, / ð /, / s /, / z /, / ʃ /, / ʒ /, / h /

Africatives menggabungkan plosif dengan kualitas frikatif, pertama menghalangi aliran udara dan kemudian perlahan-lahan melepaskannya (berbeda dengan plosif normal, yang melepaskan tekanan tiba-tiba).
Suara: / tʃ /, / dʒ /
Artikulasi dari suara pidato hanya melibatkan obstruksi sangat sedikit aliran udara, yang mengapa beberapa aproksiman dianggap relatif dekat dengan vokal (disebut setengah vokal). Realisasi tepat dari afroksiman / r / (b`ik sebagai / ɹ / atau / ɻ /) adalah salah satu perbedaan karakteristik antara Inggris dan Amerika * dialek bahasa Inggris.
Suara: / l / (lateral-alveolar afroksiman), / J / (Palatal afroksiman), / w / (labial-velar afroksiman), / ɹ / (afroksiman lateral yang di British RP), / ɻ / (retroflks afroksiman dalam bahasa Inggris Amerika)
* Perlu diketahui bahwa ada benar-benar tidak bisa berbahasa Inggris Inggris atau Amerika tunggal dalam arti linguistik yang tepat. Inggris secara teoritis dapat mencakup Skotlandia (yang secara luas dianggap sebagai bahasa terpisah), Diterima Pengucapan dan Cockney, sementara Amerika geografis akan conflate Inggris Kanada dengan Southern AS- Amerika dan tak terhitung regional dan sosial varietas lainnya. Selalu diingat bahwa tag seperti Inggris Bahasa Inggris dan bahasa Inggris Amerika yang ideal label selimut yang umumnya tidak cukup spesifik untuk tujuan linguistik.
Key Terms
  • fonetik - fonologi
  • telepon - fonem - alofon
  • vokal saluran
  • vokal - konsonan
  • menyuarakan - tempat artikulasi - cara artikulasi

Phonological Acquisition

Phonological Acquisition
A.    English Phonological Acquisition
The child’s learning how to pronounce the words of the the native language. Children learn speech sounds, consonant and vowel such as fish, butter, elephant.
B.     Indonesian Phonological Acquisition
General stages of a Child Development of Language Ability, Namely:
1.      Reflexsive Vocalization
At the age of 0-3 weeks, the sound of crying babies is still a reflex. So, a baby crying is not because she wants to cry but it is done without knowing.
2.      Babling
At the age of more than 3 weeks, when baby is hungry or uncomfortable feeling he will issue a sound of crying. Unlike previously, the cries have been issued can be distinguished according to the wishes or feelings of the baby.
3.      Lalling
At age 3 weeks to 2 months of start sounds but not clear. Baby begins to hear at the age of 2 to 6 months so that he began to utter the word with a syllable repetition, such as: "ba .... Ba ..., ma .. ma ...."
4.      Echolalia
At this stage, namely when the baby is at the age of 10 months she began to imitate the sounds that the hearing of the environment, and he will also use facial expression or hand gesture when they want to ask something.
5.      True Speech
Babies begin to speak properly. At that time he was around 18 months or so-called toddlers. However, the pronunciation is not perfect like an adult.
1.      Stages of Language Development in Children According to some experts
A. Lundsteen, divide language development in 3 stages:
1. Prelinguistic stage
- At the age of 0-3 months, the sound in and derived from the throat.
- At the age of 3-12 months, many wearing lip and palate, for example, ma, da, ba.
2. Phase protolinguitik
- At age 12 months-2 years, children already understand and demonstrate the tools of the body. He began to speak a few words (vocabulary can reach 200-300).
3. Phase linguistics
- At the age of 2-6 years or more, at this stage he began to study grammar and vocabulary development of 3000 units.

B. Bzoch divide the stages of language development of children from birth to age 3 years in four stages, namely:

1. 1. Infant language development as a communication prelinguistik
Occurs at age 0-3 months from birth until the end of the period of the first year. The newborn has not been able to combine elements of both language content, form, and language usage. In addition to undeveloped conventional forms of language, cognitive abilities of infants are also underdeveloped. Communication is more reflective than planned. This period is called prelinguistik. Although infants do not understand and can not reveal the form of conventional language, they observe and produce sound in a unique way.
Clinician must determine whether the baby observe or react to sound. If not, this is an indication for a physical evaluation and audiology. Furthermore, interventions are planned to build an environment that provides many opportunities to observe and react to sound.

2.      The word - the first word: the transition to children's language
Occurs at age 3-9 months. One of the major milestones of language development is the pronunciation of the first words that occurred at the end of the first year, continues until one and a half years when growth is rapid vocabulary, also marks the start of early sentence formation. The development of cognitive ability, presence control, and emotional interpretation in this period will give meaning to the child's first words.

Meaning the first words they can refer to objects, people, places, and events surrounding the child's early environment.
3. The development of rapid vocabulary initial sentence-formation.

Occurred at the age of 9-18 months.
Form the first words a lot and the start of sentence production. Comprehensive development and production of words took place rapidly at around the age of 18 months. Children start to combine nouns with verbs which then produces syntax. Through its interaction with adults, children begin to learn to consolidate content, form, and use of language in conversation. With the growing cognitive and affective experiences, the child begins to speak using the words stored in its memory. There was a shift from the use of one-word sentence into a noun and a verb.
4. From conversations baby into the registration pre-school child-like adults.

Occurs at age 18-36 months. Children with mobility began to increase access to wider social networks and cognitive development becnmes more deeply. Children begin to think conceptually, categorize objects, people and events as well as to solve physical problems. Children continue to develop the use of adult phoneme

Language development in children can be seen also from language acquisition according to its components, namely:

1. 1. The development of pragmatic

Communication development of children actually had started early, first of all of her crying when the baby feel uncomfortable, such as hunger, wet diaper. From here the baby will learn that he will get the attention of his mother or someone else when she was crying, so then the baby will cry when asking adults to do something for him.
-At the age of 3 weeks, the baby smiles when there is stimulation from outside, eg a person's face, eyes, voice, and tingling.
This is called a social smile.

-At the age of 12 weeks, starting with simple dialogue pattern of response when her mother's voice responded.

-At the age of 2 months, babies begin to respond to call his mother communication.

-At the age of 5 months, babies begin to imitate the movement of people, study the form of facial expressions. -At the age of 6 months, infants became interested in the objects of communication so that communication becomes a mother, baby, and objects.

-At the age of 7-12 months, children point to something to express her wishes. These movements will grow along with certain sounds that start consistently. At this time until about 18 months, the role of gestures is more prominent with the use of one syllable. -At the age of 2 years, then entered the stage of a child capable of stringing a sentence syntax with two words, reacting to the couple talked on and in a short dialogue. Children begin to introduce or change the topic and started to learn to maintain flow of conversation and catch the listener's perception. Facilitative maternal behavior that will help children in introducing new topics.

-By age 3 years, children begin to dialogue much longer up to several times a turn. After this age, children begin to be able to maintain the topic later began making a new topic. Nearly 50 percent of children 5 years to maintain a topic over 12 times a turn. Around 36 months, an increase in the liveliness of speech and children gain social awareness in the conversation.

Speech addressed to the couple speak into clear, well-organized and well adapted to the listener. Most of the couples communicate children are adults, usually parents. When children begin to build a social network that involved people outside the family, they will modify the self-understanding and self image and become more aware of the social standard. Linguistic environment has a significant influence on the process of language learning. Mother holding control in building and maintaining the correct dialogue. This lasted throughout the pre-school age. Children are in mono phase of dialogue, conversation alone with the willingness to involve other people. Monologues are rich in songs, sounds, words meaningless, fantasy and verbal expression of feeling.

1. 5. Development of Phonology

The development of phonology through a long process of decoding language. Most of the construction of the morphology of children will depend on its ability to receive and produce units of phonology. During preschool age, children not only receive the inventory of phonetic and phonological system but also develop the ability to determine which sounds are used to distinguish meaning. Phonological acquisition related to the construction process syllables consisting of a combination of vowels and consonants. Even in babbling, the child using the consonant-vowel (CV) or consonant-vowel-consonant (KVK). Other processes associated with assimilation and substitution to the perception and production of sound.
According to Clark and Clark (1977:397), some characteristics of simplification in child language are: 1)omission of final segments, 2)reduction of consonant clusters, 3)omission of unstressed syllables and 4)reduplication of syllables.
Table 1. Omission of Final Sounds
Speech produced
Intended words
English translation
B ca
            On the table above, we know that the Indonesian child produced a word by omitting the final sound. E.g. b_ca means besar. They omit the final sound of ‘r’.
Table 2. Reduction of consonant clusters
Speech produced
Intended words
English translation
On the example above, the children produce a word consisting of two or more syllables with reducing the consonant which is in the middle of a word. For instance, gapu means garpu. The sound ‘r’ in the middle of word is reduced.
Table 3. Omission of unstressed syllables
Speech produced
Intended words
English translation
By himself
            The example of the third characteristic is pronunciation of Këla which is from sekolah. The stressing of this word is in se’kolah. They omit the unstressed syllable se and directly pronounce ‘kola.
Table 4. Reduplication of Syllables
Speech produced
Intended words
English translation
            From the examples above, we can analyze that the children at 2 to 3-year old sometimes use reduplication to produce a word. It happens because the children may have difficulty to produce the whole word and they use reduplication to make it more simple.
1.      Children using English often reduce  or eliminated the second consonant such dress becomes dess, clown becomes cown play becomes pay. It is called consonant cluster reduction.
2.      Assimilation process of course when sounds in the child production are assimilated to neigbouring sound in the same word or other unit thus the affected sound has a phonetic relation not only to the model sound but also to relevant other sound that occur near it.For example : if a child says ( guck for duck the initial alveolar d is being assimilated to the velar k ).
3.      Voicing and Devoicing : Occur when consonant tend to be voiced when preceding a vowel and devoiced at the end of syllable. For example : an English says [ daini ] for tiny [ tini ], [ ek ] for egg [egg ], and [ das ] for toes [ taus ].
4.      Many children will make errors in producing such fricatives as [f, v, s, z, h] replacing them with corresponding stop [p,b,t,d,k,g ]. For example : children say [ti] for sing and [they ] for say.
5.      Vellar ( k,g,n ) and palatal consonant ( c,j) tend to be replaced by alveolar ones ( t,d,s,z,l,n,r). for example : children pronounces ( dut ) for goat, [tal for call].
6.      English child pronounces leg as beg and ready as wedi ( gliding ).
7.      Engilsh child will be best representative for example : he says ( apo ) for apple and ( babu ) for bottle.
8.      English children change vowel into oral and often centralized vowel. For example : back is pronounced ( bat )